Why there’s no health without the Ocean.

A healthy Ocean is our greatest ally against climate change.

Our health depends on the Ocean.  

This statement is true, of course, but it’s very easy to become desensitised to this idea when it all seems so abstract. 

In this modern world, it’s easy to overlook the fundamental basis our survival that we often take for granted.

It can be hard to directly link our everyday lives and habits to the Ocean, especially for those of us who don’t live anywhere near the coast, and don’t interact with the sea on a regular basis. 

This can leave many of us feeling disconnected and disengaged from Ocean action. 

A quote saying "Our health depends on the Ocean" in a science article discussing why a healthy Ocean is key to our survival.

But let’s dive deeper into this statement to find out what a healthy Ocean really means to us (humanity), and why we should must care.

A healthy Ocean is key to our survival 

In fact, the Ocean provides all the fundamental resources that we need to survive:

1. Air: The oxygen in every second breath we take comes from the Ocean.

It’s also believed that tiny, single-celled algae called Cyanobacteria provided the atmospheric conditions suitable for our very existence around 2.4 billion years ago.  (That’s referred to as the Great Oxidation Event.)  

2. Water: All water on the planet is connected by a system known as the hydrological cycle.

Water evaporates from the Ocean’s surface to form clouds, which provide us with the fresh water that we use to drink, shower, and cook with.  

It’s all connected via rivers, streams, and groundwater tables.

Even the water that makes up 60% of your own body was part of the Ocean at some point. 

Our Ocean provides air, water, food and shelter for our survival.

3. Food: Seafood provides a primary source of protein for over 3.3 billion people.

That’s over 40% of the global population (8.1 billion in 2023). The Ocean also drives the rain systems and climate patterns which help our crops to grow.

So even if you don’t eat fish, the Ocean still indirectly provides the food that you eat.

4. Shelter: The Ocean has been present during every element of our evolutionary history as human beings and continues to shape the way our society functions. 

River basins, where land meets the sea, represent the earliest relationship between human society and nature. These areas of fertile plain fields, rich soil and abundant water resources allowed for the very first human civilisations to thrive.  

Over time, the development of ports also provided a gateway of connectivity and transportation between societies.  

This relationship continues today.  

As of 2020, almost 1 billion people live within 10km of the coastline, and more than one third of the world’s population (2.75 billion people) live within 100km from the coast. 

What’s more, over 3 billion people depend on the Ocean as a primary source of income, the majority of these from Ocean-based industries such as fisheries and tourism in developing countries. 

Why healthy people need a healthy Ocean: explained by Ocean generation, leaders in Ocean literacy.

Healthy people need a healthy Ocean 

The Ocean contains a vast biodiversity of life, with over 250,000 known species and many more (at least two thirds) yet to be discovered.  

Each life form has a unique method of adaptation against disease and pathogens. We’re constantly learning from this strange and alien world to apply these mechanisms to our own needs.  

We depend on this marine biodiversity to develop modern medicines. In fact, between 1981-2008, around 64% of all drugs used to fight infection, and 63% of anti-cancer drugs were derived from natural sources.  

For example, the Horseshoe Crab is commonly referred to as a “living fossil” and has survived almost unchanged for around 200 million years. Its blue blood contains special cells called “granular amoebocytes” which can detect and clot around even the tiniest presence of toxic bacteria.  

Humans harness the special property of this blood to test whether the drugs and vaccines that we produce are free from contamination.

A healthy Ocean is our greatest ally against climate change.

A healthy Ocean is our greatest ally against climate change. 

A healthy Ocean stabilises our entire planetary system and acts as a buffer against the worsening impacts of climate change.  

It regulates global air temperatures by absorbing 26% of total CO2 emissions and storing over 90% of the excess heat from the atmosphere.  

But the Ocean is not just a victim of climate change, it’s also a source of solutions.

Our Ocean provides all the fundamental resources that we need to survive. Written by Ocean Generation.

Coastal “blue carbon” ecosystems, such as mangroves, tidal marshes and seagrass meadows remove and store carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. These ecosystems can lock away carbon in their soils at rates up to an order of magnitude faster than terrestrial forests.

Protecting and restoring these vital coastal ecosystems offers us a chance to ensure a sustainable future for people and planet.  

If the Ocean thrives, so do we.  

So, next time you’re having a drink of water, catching your breath after exercising, or waiting at the doctor’s surgery for some medicine, take a moment to stop and thank the Ocean for providing the fundamentals to make all this possible. 

Our Ocean is not just a victim of climate change, it's a source of solutions.

Why is the Ocean so important?


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Why is the Ocean so important?

Ocean wave crashing on a rock. Shared by Ocean Generation in an article about why the Ocean is important.

Introducing the Ocean: Our most precious, life-giving, climateregulating, yet recklessly exploited, undervalued, and underfunded resource.  

Covering over 70% of our blue planet and holding roughly 97% of the world’s water, the Ocean provides the foundation for all living things. From the smallest plankton to the largest animal to have ever lived (the blue whale). And that’s just the beginning of why the Ocean is important.

Energy is cycled across its single, interconnected system; keeping everything in balance. It allows all life to exist together in harmony. 

The Ocean makes up over 90% of all habitable space on Earth.  

Just think about that. All the rainforests, grasslands, mountain ranges and deserts combined with every town, city and village of human civilisation make up less than 10% of the liveable space on our planet.  

Everything else is Ocean.  

The Ocean exists on a scale beyond our understanding. ocean facts shared by Ocean Generation: Experts in Ocean health.

An Ocean which is home to the world’s largest mountain range (the Mid Ocean Ridge is over seven times longer than the Andes).

And the world’s deepest canyon. (Challenger Deep is six times deeper than the Grand Canyon and could easily swallow Mount Everest.) 

This vast, interconnected body of water exists on a scale so large that it’s almost beyond the realm of our understanding. 

But we need to understand why the Ocean is important.  

The Ocean defines our planet and provides the very foundation of our existence 

If it could talk, the Ocean would be able to tell us all about the dinosaurs, the ice age, and how Stonehenge or Egypt’s pyramids were really built. The Ocean watched as the earliest Homo Sapiens (that’s us) took our first footsteps. It may even hold the secrets to the very beginning of life on Earth.  

Two circle images beside each other: One of the pyramids in Egypt and another of a calm Ocean scene. Ocean Generation is sharing why the Ocean is so important in this article.

To look back at the history of the Ocean is to look back at the history of life itself.  

For millions of years, the Ocean has provided the conditions required for the evolution of all living things. The Ocean burst into life during the Cambrian explosion (the *relatively* sudden radiation and divergence of complex life forms) around 538.8 million years ago and has seen all five mass extinction events since. 

Make that six.  

At this very moment, we are living through the sixth mass extinction event. Research shows that species are now going extinct between 100 and 1,000 times faster than natural, background extinction rates.  

The delicate balance of life which has been slowly ticking along for millions of years has taken decades to unravel.  

According to the IUCN Red List, over 44,000 assessed species are threatened with extinction.  

It’s almost impossible to comprehend that we are hurtling towards destruction on a scale comparable to that caused by a colossal asteroid collision 66 million years ago. (That, the last mass extinction event, wiped out the dinosaurs).   

Except this time, humanity are both the asteroid and the dinosaurs.  

A pod of dolphins swimming in the Ocean shared by Ocean Generation.


Is the Ocean too vast to feel our impact?  

People used to think the Ocean existed on such an infinite, untouchable scale that nothing we, people, could do would affect its limitless bounty.  

“Man marks the earth with ruin – his control stops with the shore…”

– Lord Byron, Nineteenth Century.
Sunset image of the Ocean and a pink sky. Shared by Ocean Generation the global charity providing Ocean education to everyone, everywhere.

We now know that this is wrong.  

Throughout the last decades, our Ocean has been heating up. It’s becoming more acidic, choking in plastic, drained of its fish stocks, and pumped with toxic chemicals at a rate far beyond which it can sustain.  

We have borne witness to record breaking temperatures, mass coral-bleaching and glacial melting events. Now, we are hurtling towards a ‘new normal’ in which instability and volatility are centre stage. 

We have been recklessly exploiting our Ocean system.  

We have watched as records are broken time and time again.  

But in 2023, the Ocean temperature record wasn’t just broken, it was absolutely obliterated. 

In fact, the entire upper 2000m of the Ocean experienced shatteringly high temperatures. As this surface layer heats up, it’s less able to mix with deep water below. As a result, surface oxygen content has decreased.  

Image of a glacier in the Ocean with the quote: In 2023, the Ocean temperature record wasn’t just broken, it was absolutely obliterated.

This isn’t only detrimental to marine ecosystems, but it also slows the Ocean’s life-saving ability to sequester (remove and store) atmospheric carbon dioxide.  

The global water cycle has also been amplified by our warming Ocean. For us on land, this means stronger, longer droughts as well as intensified rainfall, storm, and flooding events.  

Restoring the Ocean starts on land – with us.

Just like how people once thought the Ocean was too large to feel our impacts. Now, it may seem like our impacts are too large to solve. But we know this isn’t true.  

We have the technology, the knowledge, and the power to turn the tide and reverse our trajectory. 

We know this because we’re in many parts of the world, it’s already happening.  

Effectively managed Marine Protected Areas, Maximum Sustainable Yields (the maximum catch size that can be removed from a population to maintain a healthy and sustainable fish stock), and the rise in renewable energy technologies are all ways in which humanity has learned to collaborate more fairly with nature.  

Rainbow over a beach and the Ocean with the quote: We have the opportunity to leave our Ocean in a better state than we found it. Shared by Ocean Generation, leaders in environmental education.

Working with the Ocean rather against it can reap limitless benefits for both people and planet. If the Ocean thrives, so do we.

This knowledge is power.  
Power to be part of the solution, to consider the cost of inaction and unite to ensure our Ocean’s health is considered in all decisions – personal, business, and government policies.  

We have a unique opportunity to be the first generation to leave our precious Ocean in a better state than we found it. 

Your actions may feel like a drop in the Ocean, but together we can make waves of change.  

Start by signing up to our newsletter and reading about 15 climate actions you can take to restore our Ocean. Learn more about why the Ocean is important by adding it to your scroll via your favourite social platform:

Why is the Ocean so important?


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COP28 Outcomes: The beginning of the end of fossil fuels

Young woman in a fashionable dress shirt floating in the Ocean. Her eyes are closed and she looks relaxed. Ocean Generation is sharing COP28 outcomes in this article with a focus on Ocean wins.

Everything you need to know about COP28 outcomes.

After a gruelling set of negotiations which dragged on well into the night, a new deal has finally been agreed at the UN climate summit COP28, in Dubai, UAE. 

COP28 outcomes: ‘Fossil fuels’ finally make the cut.

In the face of colossal opposition from the world’s oil producing countries, and despite the highest number of fossil fuel lobbyists at COP than ever before, a global consensus has been reached. The world has finally agreed to transition away from fossil fuels.  

For the first time ever, the elephant in the room has been addressed. ‘Fossil fuels’ have made it into the official outcome agreement at COP28.  

Environmentalists celebrate the results of COP28 because for the first time ever, 
‘fossil fuels’ have made it
into the official outcome 
agreement at COP28.  
Shared by Ocean Generation: Experts in Ocean health and Ocean conservation.

This is the biggest step forward for climate since the adoption of the Paris Agreement in 2015. And the COP28 agreement signals the beginning of the end of the fossil fuel era.   

The agreement follows the widespread fury sparked by an earlier draft, which was deemed a “death sentence” by representatives from Pacific Island nations. The new document calls on countries to “contribute to global efforts to transition away from fossil fuels in energy systems in a just, orderly and equitable manner.” 

The deal also calls for a tripling of global renewable energy capacity and doubling of energy efficiency by 2030. 

Ocean Generation questions if the COP28 outcomes go far enough to fighting the climate crisis. Alone, it won’t keep global temperature rise below 1.5˚C. But it may help the world to get closer to net zero by 2050.

Does the COP28 Agreement go far enough 

Despite the standing ovations as the new COP28 agreement was passed, many nations have criticised the final decision. And there are concerns that it hasn’t gone far enough.

With just six years left until 1.5 degrees becomes inevitable, it’s not the “phase-out” that we had all hoped for.  

Put simply, the language of the text was weaker than many countries wanted.  

There was no mention of coal or methane (the most potent greenhouse gas). A finance path to aid the transition for developing countries was also missing. There was also no request for developed countries to take the lead on the transition away from fossil fuels. This raised further criticisms over the fairness of the deal. 

A ‘litany of loopholes’ scattered within the text provides enough ambiguity for fossil fuel producers to continue ramping up production. Examples include ‘abatement’ (A.K.A CO2 removal); ‘transition fuels’ (A.K.A gas), and ‘fossil fuel subsidies’ to name a few.  

Loopholes in the COP28 agreement text provide ambiguity for fossil fuel producers to continue ramping up production. Shared by Ocean Generation: Experts in Ocean health and Ocean conservation.

This will have devastating consequences. Particularly, for the most vulnerable communities who are already bearing the brunt of the worsening impacts of climate change.  

Opposition to the new deal was voiced by a representative of Small Island Developing States (SIDS). The SIDS said: ‘You agreed the deal when we weren’t in the room’. This was meant literally (delegates from SIDS were still discussing their response to the text when it was agreed further down the hall). However, it also reflects that these nations feel overlooked, despite being the hardest hit by climate change.  

Does the COP28 Agreement go far enough 

The agreement alone will not be enough to keep global temperature rise below 1.5˚C. But it may help the world to get closer to net zero by 2050. That’s if individual countries put a rapid transition to green energy at the heart of their new NDCs. 

Here are some reactions from top climate scientists:

“At my lowest points as a climate scientist I did not think I would see a COP agreement that includes wording on the start of transitioning away from fossil fuels in my lifetime.”
– Prof Mary Gagen, Climate scientist, Swansea University  

“The agreement, though inadequate, is an essential and sustained baby step towards the goal of limiting human caused climate change.”
– Prof Richard Allan, Climate scientist, University of Reading 

Rainbow over the Ocean shared by Ocean conservation charity Ocean Generation

How does the Ocean fit into COP28 outcomes?

Multilateralism (alliance between countries to achieve a common goal) connects us all, and so does the Ocean.  

This was recognised during the Nature, Land Use and Ocean’s Day. Countries, non-state actors and other stakeholders came together in support of nature-based Ocean and climate action.

Here are our top three Ocean-wins from COP28: 

  1. The importance of maintaining the health of our Ocean is getting recognised.

    During the Nature, Land Use and Ocean’s Day, 18 countries pledged to implement Sustainable Ocean Plans. These plans are supported by the official launch of Ocean Breakthroughs.  

    These will provide a roadmap for change and aim to catalyse momentum across five key areas. Namely, marine conservation, shipping, aquatic food, coastal tourism, and marine renewables. These contributing countries represent 50% of the world’s coastlines and close to 50% of global Exclusive Economic Zones (EEZ’s). 

  2. There’s an increased appreciation that the Ocean can provide solutions for mitigation and adaptation.

    $186 million of new funding was pledged towards investment in nature-based solutions and Ocean-action. The Mangrove breakthrough was also formally endorsed by 21 countries. Its global goal is to protect 15 million hectares of mangroves

  3. And a growing acknowledgement of the need for synergy between climate and biodiversity targets.

    The joint statement on climate, nature and people was signed by 20 countries. It seeks to align action on climate change, biodiversity loss and sustainable development. It recognises that a healthy Ocean will provide benefits across all three avenues. 
Image of a woman and the Ocean. We cant solve the climate crisis without a healthy Ocean says David Eades, BBC Journalist and presenter. Shared by Ocean Generation: Experts in Ocean health and Ocean conservation.

What happens next?

For world leaders: While the COP28 decisions are not legally binding, Parties (countries) are obliged to act in accordance with the outcomes of this process. It’s time for world leaders to head home and begin delivering on the promises made. Individual countries are required to submit stronger action plans in their next round of Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs) in 2025.  

For COP: Fossil fuels have officially entered the global conversation. The work now begins to tighten this language and ensure a fair, equitable and just transition at COP29 in Azerbaijan, and beyond. To ensure a liveable planet and a healthy Ocean, we need a full ‘phase-out’ of fossil fuels before it’s too late. 

For us: Together, we must ride this growing wave of hope and momentum, to continue advocating for stronger Ocean-action.  

Stay up to date with all things Ocean:  

We’re known for translating Ocean science into engaging content. See what we’re all about on your favourite social platform or make a donation to support our charity:

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What’s happened on our blue planet since COP27?

Hand reaching out into the Ocean water.

Extreme weather events and temperature records have made headlines more frequently in 2023 than ever.

The transition into an El Niño climate pattern (explained here) compounded by worsening impacts of climate change have resulted in an unstable year of weather patterns.  

This is a trend which is set to intensify in the coming years. 

The more often these events happen, the less headline-worthy they are and instead they simply become part of the norm. As the world turns its attention to climate change at COP28, we must recognise weather events as part of the larger-scale changes that are happening all around us, right now. 

It’s also important to celebrate the key breakthroughs for Ocean-action in 2023 and use these as a foundation to expand our future ambition at COP28 and beyond. 

The more often extreme weather events happen, the less headline-worthy they are and instead they simply become part of the norm.

Timeline of extreme weather events and Ocean wins that have made headlines in 2023: 

Our Ocean regulates global climate and is inextricably linked to these extreme weather events.

How the Ocean is linked to temperature records broken:

Over the course of 2023, we saw the warmest Northern Hemisphere summer on record and the hottest September ever recorded (average global temperature reached +0.66°C and +0.93°C warmer than the 1991-2020 baseline respectively).  

Unsurprisingly, since the Ocean absorbs 90% of the excess heat associated with climate change, these broken temperature records were not limited to land.  

The highest ever Ocean surface temperature was recorded in August 2023, as widespread marine heatwaves spread across the North Atlantic, Mediterranean, and Gulf of Mexico.  

This unprecedented heat stress caused a severe coral bleaching event in the Caribbean, during which the highest warning level alerted to significant coral mortality

September 2023 also saw the lowest mean winter sea ice extent ever observed in the Antarctic, with maximum coverage a shocking 1.03 million km2 below the previous record low. 

Scientists fear that this could mark the beginning of a long-term declining trend.  

Graph of Antarctic Sea Ice Extent in 2023 shared by Ocean Generation.

As greenhouse gases continue to accumulate in the atmosphere, our Ocean continues to warm.

Warmer water absorbs less carbon dioxide, and the Ocean’s ability to act as a buffer and protect us against rapid temperature change slows.  

How the Ocean links to storms and flooding events:

Weather systems are supercharged by our warming Ocean, as warmer water supplies more moisture and thermal energy to the atmosphere. 

This process drives intensified rainfall and more powerful storm and flooding events. 

For instance, Cyclone Freddy made landfall multiple times across Malawi, Mozambique, and Madagascar in February 2023, killing more than 1,000 people and displacing millions.

This was the longest-lasting tropical cyclone ever recorded (34 days long), and also broke the record for the most accumulated energy based on wind strength measurements. 

You’ve probably also heard of a phenomenon called ‘El Niño’ which has been linked to many extreme weather events this year.  

The Ocean absorbs 90% of the excess heat associated with climate change. Image of a dessert and the Ocean, showing how the Ocean is connect to everything on Earth.

What is the El Niño phenomenon? 

El Niño occurs due to the periodical weakening of trade winds in the Pacific Ocean. This pushes warm surface water towards the west coast of the Americas and drives changes in wind and weather patterns across the globe. 

The surprising impact of wildfires on our Ocean 

Wildfire events are growing in frequency and intensity across the globe, partly driven by rising temperatures, strong winds and drier conditions.  

In a surprising discovery, severe Australian wildfires in 2019-2020 were found to cause abnormal algal blooms in the Southern Ocean, thousands of miles downwind of the flames.  

It is believed that aerosols from the fire, which contain high levels of iron, phosphorous and other minerals, were transported downwind into the Southern Ocean. These minerals, which are usually in low supply in this region, acted as a fertiliser and caused abnormal algal bloom events. 

In a surprising discovery, severe Australian wildfires (2019-2020) caused abnormal algal blooms in the Southern Ocean. Image of wildfires and Ocean corals, showing how the Ocean is connected to everything.

Artificial fertilisation events can disrupt natural nutrient cycling and marine photosynthesis patterns in the Ocean.  

Further clues of these widespread impacts were seen in 2023. Huge wildfires in Canada burned all summer long, releasing persistent aerosol pollution over the Atlantic Ocean. Evidence of this was seen in the skies over parts of the UK in September, where incoming smoke diluted the sunshine, causing the sun to appear lilac in colour.  

Only time will tell the impacts of this year’s events, but it’s clear that wildfires can have far-reaching consequences on underwater ecosystems.  

Ocean wins giving us hope for the future. 

2023 has been a monumental year for Ocean wins. 

This year, we celebrated the agreement of the landmark High Seas Treaty, improved single-use plastic regulations, and the decision to pause deep sea mining among others. This is a sign of the ever-growing Ocean-recognition in local, regional, and global decision making.  

Whale tail breaking out of the Ocean. 2023 was a momentous year for Ocean wins. Ocean Generation is sharing the Ocean wins that happened in 2023 and a timeline of other extreme weather events.

Each Ocean win moves us one step closer to effective Ocean-action, and it does not stop here. At COP28, we need to see continued momentum to protect and safeguard our Ocean into 2024 and beyond.   

Stay up to date with COP28:  

We’re sharing bite-sized COP updates, commitments, and Ocean wins on your favourite social platform.  

Why is the Ocean so important?


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The Global Stocktake: Translated

Three diverse woem with the blue sky behind them.

What is the Global Stocktake and what has it told us about the progress we’re making in the face of climate change?

The Global Stocktake is the first comprehensive assessment of global progress made on climate change since the adoption of the Paris Climate Change Agreement in 2015.  

Essentially, it is a global inventory of all-things climate change: What progress has been made? What areas need more focus? Are we on track to meet our climate goals? (Spoiler alert…we are not). 

What is the global stocktake? The Global Stocktake is the 1st comprehensive assessment 
of global progress made on climate change since the adoption 
of the Paris Climate Change Agreement in 2015. Shared by Ocean Generation.

In this critical decade for climate action, assessing collective progress towards climate goals helps us to identify key gaps, holds us accountable to our commitments, and allows us to work together to agree on solutions.  

The Global Stocktake provides an opportunity for leaders to course correct by ramping up global ambition and avoid the worst consequences of the climate crisis.  

The Global Stocktake consists of three phases  

  1. Data collection phase: 

Culmination of all available information across all thematic areas (including coastal zones, terrestrial and marine ecosystem services, food, water, and energy use).

  1. Technical phase:  

Evaluation of information to produce insights and summary reports, written by a range of stakeholders. The findings were culminated in a synthesis report. 

  1. Political phase: 

Negotiations, policy changes and decisions based on synthesis report findings.

This phase will take place during COP28 and is critical to determine how countries will respond. 

So, what does the Global Stocktake report tell us?

The Global Stocktake synthesis report is a 46-page technical dialogue which serves as a factual resource and provides a comprehensive overview of the outcomes from phases one and two.  

Key finding 1: 

While the Paris Agreement has driven climate action, we are not on track to meet its goals. Ambitions and action must be ramped up to get us there.  

Image of speed boat in the Ocean making a circle in the water. Ahead of COP28, Ocean Generation - a global Ocean charity shares - While the Paris Agreement 
has driven climate action, 
we are not on track 
to meet its goals.

Key finding 2: 

Climate change must be addressed within the context of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Tougher, more transparent accounting measures are needed to accurately assess the credibility of climate contributions.  

It is vital that marginalised groups (including women, youth, and Indigenous Peoples) are stakeholders to ensure that everyone can actively participate in these efforts.   

Key finding 3: 

The large-scale systems transformation needed will be disruptive, so they need to be equitable. 

Example transformations include shifting the current ways in which we get around to low-carbon forms of transport. This will involve shifting ownership from petrol and diesel to electric cars, and the entire reconfiguration of public transport networks. 

Systems transformation also applies to the food and agriculture sector. We must find a way to reduce the land-footprint of agriculture, halt and reverse deforestation, and effectively manage fish stocks. All while simultaneously increasing production to provide for the ever-growing number of human mouths to feed.  

These are the systems which underpin how we live our day-to-day lives, and they need to be transformed to better align human society with a climate-positive future. Therefore, it is vital that we focus on inclusion and equity to ensure that no-one is left behind.  

Those most affected by climate impacts should be involved in crafting the solutions. 

Key finding 4: 

Global emissions are not in line with where they need to be, and the window to limit warming to 1.5 °C above pre-industrial levels is closing rapidly.  

Global emissions are not in line with where they need to be, and the window to limit warming to 1.5 °C above pre-industrial levels is closing rapidly.

According to the IPCC AR6 Report, global greenhouse gas emissions must peak between 2020 and 2025 to limit warming to the Paris Agreement temperature goal. Global emissions have not yet peaked.  

Key finding 5: 

Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs – self-determined plans put in place by each nation to achieve its climate goals) must be more ambitious.  

More leadership in reducing emissions is needed, particularly from developed countries.  

Key finding 6: 

Systems change is needed from everyone, everywhere.
No sector can escape the need for transformation.  

Two hands holding up a replica of the planet, symbolising that to take climate action change is needed from everyone, everywhere. No sector can escape the need for transformation. And everyone must look after our planet. The planet is in our hands.

Key finding 7: 

A fair, just transition can be applied to a range of different approaches and contexts, at different stages of the journey.  

Goals should be set in reasonable, manageable chunks to reduce the negative consequences of rapid systems change.  

Key finding 8: 

We must diversify the economy to cope with the changes that are needed.  

This includes contributions to the loss and damage fund agreed at COP27 and may involve restructuring entire supply chains.  

Key finding 9: 

We must secure a liveable and sustainable future for all.  

No-one is safe from climate change, and greater focus (and funding) is needed to reduce, adapt, and respond to these impacts.  

This is particularly vital for communities who are already feeling the effects but are neither prepared nor able to recover from disasters.  

Key finding 10: 

Climate planning must be coherent amongst all sectors and regions, and adaptation measures need to be more streamlined, ambitious, and ubiquitous.   

Word cloud of all 17 of the findings from the global stocktake: our planet's first assessment - country by country - of the progress we're making in the face of climate change; created by Ocean Generation.
Word cloud of the most-used words in the 17 findings from the Global Stocktake Report, 2023.

Key finding 11: 

Lots more support for locally led adaptation methods is needed. This includes improving access to critical resources and information, to empower communities forge their own solutions.  

Key finding 12: 

Despite the 1.5°C benchmark, we need to understand that impacts will worsen with every fraction of a degree of global warming, particularly for vulnerable communities who are already affected.  

It is vital that we do not exceed certain thresholds and ‘tipping points’ which will lead to irreversible changes. Filling knowledge gaps is crucial to identify these tipping points and effectively avoid them.   

Key finding 13: 

Climate finance is inadequate and needs to be urgently improved and scaled-up.  

Key finding 14: 

Access to climate finance in developing countries needs to be enhanced. 

Key finding 15: 

Finance and investment flows need to be directed towards the energy transition and away from greenhouse gases.   

Clean technology (eg. Renewable energy) is crucial to tackle climate change.

Ways of implementing this include:  

  • De-risking investments in clean-energy technologies. 
  • Creating pipelines of investible products for adaptation and mitigation. 
  • Subsidies. 

Key finding 16: 

Clean technology (eg. Renewable energy) is crucial to tackle climate change. A reduction in cost and push towards scalability is needed to rapidly deploy existing technologies and effectively integrate them into grid systems.  

More research is also needed to understand the role of technology and innovation (such as Carbon Capture and Storage) in supporting the transition.   

Key finding 17: 

We need international cooperation to reduce the barriers to climate action.  

This would involve empowering each nation to assess their climate risks and seek ways to improve them.   

breaching wave shared by Ocean Generation: Experts in Ocean education

What happens next?

The Global Stocktake is a vital tool to catalyse the urgency we need for robust, decisive action at the scale that is needed.  

It will enter the political phase during COP28, where discussions will take place and a new round of NDCs will be released. These decisions will determine how the world responds to this information at such a critical stage of the climate crisis.  

Read: Everything you ned to know about COP28.     

Why is the Ocean so important?


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What to expect from COP28

Hand reaching out into the Ocean water.

Everything you need to know: COP28.

It’s almost time for the world to come together once more, at COP28, to discuss our climate change commitments. 

Ahead of this year’s summit, the Global Stocktake provided a useful inventory of current progress toward global climate goals. COP28 will therefore represent an important opportunity for course correction and increased ambition towards Ocean-climate action.   

What is COP all about? 

What is COP? The Conference of Parties is the annual conference and decision-making body for global climate change commitments. Definition of COP on an image of a woman with short hair, walking away from a singular yellow chair on a beach. Shared by Ocean generation in an article about COP28 expectations.

The Conference Of Parties (COP) is an annual conference where the main decision-making for global climate change commitments takes place. 

And when is COP28? COP28 will be held between 30th November – 12th December 2023, at Expo City, Dubai, UAE.  

The formal goals of COP28 are:

  1. Energy and emissions: 

Phase-down demand for, and supply of all fossil fuels, leading to an energy system free of unabated fossil fuels by 2050 (which basically means we’d be free of fossil fuels used and produced without interventions to reduce the greenhouse gasses they emit throughout their life cycle).  

This includes tripling renewable energy capacity and doubling the rate of energy efficiency improvements across sectors by 2030.  

  1. Finance 

Ensuring that climate finance is affordable, available, and accessible to developing countries, by delivering the annual investment in climate action needed by 2030.  

  1. Putting nature, people, lives, and livelihoods first: 

Investing in people and nature through the loss and damage fund and encouraging all parties to align climate action with biodiversity targets, since one cannot exist without the other.  

  1. Inclusivity:  

Commitments towards strengthened collaboration with marginalised groups such as women, Indigenous Peoples, local communities, youth, people of determination, subnational actors, and faith-based organisations.  

There is no room for phasing-down the use of fossil fuels in a net zero world. We must phase-out fossil fuels to protect our planet. Quote shared by Ocean Generation: Experts in Ocean health.

Why is COP28 controversial?

COP28 has received a lot of attention from the media, particularly regarding this year’s COP President’s position within the fossil fuel industry. 

Dr Sultan al-Jaber is the minister of industry and advanced technology for UAE, and the managing director and group CEO of the Abu Dhabi National Oil Company (ADNOC Group). 

Concerns have been raised about the impartiality of climate talks and the influence of fossil fuel lobbyists, for whom blocking fossil fuel phase-out is within their economic interest. 

For instance, ADNOC announced a five-year, $150 billion investment in fossil fuel expansion in November 2022.

This is predicted to produce 7.5 billion barrels of oil and gas, 90% of which would have to remain in the ground to meet the International Energy Agency’s net zero emissions scenario. 

How can we spot when climate-dialogue is shifted towards the interests of the fossil fuel industry? 

Decoding climate dialogue – it’s all in the wording: 

When navigating climate conferences, it’s important to understand key terms and phrasing which may open loopholes and derail progress. 

Accurately decoding the dialogue helps us to stay diligent, see past greenwashing and spot false solutions. 

This is particularly important during discussions on topics which divide the crowd.

Two little penguins on ice in the Antarctic. The accompanying wording reads: When navigating climate conferences, it’s important to understand key terms and phrasing which may open loopholes and derail progress. Shared by Ocean Generation as part of their series of everything you need to know about COP.

Here are some key phrases to look out for this year: 

  • Unabated fossil fuels:  

Fossil fuels burned without using technologies to capture the resulting CO2 emissions.

  • Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) 

The relative importance of CCS remains contentious in climate discussions. 

What is CCS?

Carbon capture and storage is a process used to capture the carbon dioxide produced by power generation or industrial activity, transporting it, and storing it deep underground.

The science tells us that while CCS has the potential to play a key role in meeting climate change targets (eg. For heavy industry that’s much harder to decarbonise. And once we reach net zero, it can help tip us back the other way), but it’s not the silver-bullet solution to the current problem. 

Focussing on mobilising CCS instead of simply keeping fossil fuels in the ground is a distraction. It delays the inevitable transition away from fossil fuels that needs to happen. 

  • Phase-down emissions 

There is no room for phasing-down in a net-zero world; we must phase-out.  

The use of the word ‘emissions’ also deliberately omits fossil fuels from final decisions. This ambiguous phrasing provides a loophole for their continued growth and development. 

The focus must therefore be on ‘phasing-out fossil fuels.’ 

Ocean spotlight at COP28: 

Motorised boat on a dry stretch of land that should be water. The words read: Our Ocean is increasingly recognised in global climate dialogue and will take the spotlight at COP28 during the ‘Nature, Land use and Oceans’ thematic day (9th December 2023). This dedicated day aims to support climate-aligned and nature positive use of land and Ocean systems.  

This reflects the increasing focus towards ‘blue ambition’ and the growing recognition that when we protect the Ocean, we also protect ourselves.

Our Ocean is increasingly recognised in global climate dialogue and will take the spotlight at COP28 during the ‘Nature, Land use and Oceans’ thematic day (9th December 2023). This dedicated day aims to support climate-aligned and nature positive use of land and Ocean systems. 

This reflects the increasing focus towards ‘blue ambition’ and the growing recognition that when we protect the Ocean, we also protect ourselves. 

Ocean action is climate action and climate action is Ocean action. 

Ignace Beguin Billecocq, Ocean Lead for UN Climate Change High-Level Champions.
Are the conversations at COP going to cut it? We need action, not promises. Implementation, not good intentions. This article runs down Ocean Generation's expectations for COP28.

Ocean Generation’s hopes and expectations for COP28: 

We will always welcome more commitments to safeguard our Ocean, but this year we want to see promises turn to progress, and ideas turn to action.

This includes:  

  • Decarbonisation across every sector.  

New research suggests that we have less than six years before global warming of 1.5°C is inevitable. Rapid, widespread reduction of CO2 emissions is essential to steer us away from this fate. 

Decarbonisation efforts should seek alternative fuels and port infrastructure for Ocean shipping, enabling technologies to connect new and existing marine-renewable energy to the grid, and strengthened net-zero commitments across fisheries and aquaculture supply chains.  

Opportunities to incentivise emissions reductions within the Ocean-tourism sector should also be considered. 

  • Strengthening of mitigation and adaptation commitments.  

Commitments made in the landmark High Seas Treaty agreement earlier in 2023 must be actioned in climate policies, to meet the goal of protecting 30% of the Ocean by 2030. Focus must also be drawn to the remaining 70%, to build progress toward the Ocean we need.  

Further restoration and protection of “blue carbon” ecosystems (such as seagrasses, mangroves, tidal marshes) within exclusive economic zones must be included in national commitments to ensure their sustained benefits (such as carbon sequestration and flood protection).  

  • Mainstreaming Ocean-action.   

Now, more than ever, widespread recognition of our Ocean’s pivotal role in combatting climate change is vital. 

We need increased Ocean-recognition in global climate dialogue, and countries must commit to mainstreaming Ocean-actions into their national commitments.  

These Ocean-climate solutions must be integrated into biodiversity goals since one cannot exist without the other.   

Blue carbon ecosystems reduce impacts of climate change. What are blue carbon ecosystems?   Blue carbon is any carbon stored by the Ocean so blue carbon ecosystems are ecosystems that make that carbon storage in the Ocean possible. Examples include mangrove trees, salt marshes and sea grass meadows.
  • Inclusive and mobilised solutions for all.   

No-one is safe from climate change, so no-one should be left out of forging solutions.

We need full empowerment and collaboration with marginalised groups, especially those that are disproportionately impacted by climate change. Community-led marine management should play a central role, and this must be enabled by providing access to critical resources and information.  

Stable and accessible finance flows are needed to provide a healthy Ocean for all.   

  • Filling knowledge gaps in this critical Decade for Ocean Science.  

Strengthening of Ocean-focused research and standardised data sharing is critical to effectively implement and manage Ocean-actions.  

How to stay up to date with all things COP28 

Follow Ocean Generation on your favourite social platform for COP updates, progress, Ocean wins, and actions.  

Why is the Ocean so important?


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